This color contains the following pigments:
beta-oxynaphthoic acid lake
Beta-oxynaphthoic acid (BONA) lake pigments vary in their hue and other properties, depending on what metals they form a salt with. Both pure and mixed metal salts are used. They tend to have high tinting strength and good stability and lightfastness.
Beta-oxynaphthoic acid lake pigments tend to have high tinting strength and good stability and lightfastness, but results vary with the application, and the presense of titanium dioxide may reduce lightfastness.
Beta-oxynaphthoic acid may have been synthesized as early as 1887. Commerical use of BONA lake pigments began in the 20th century.
mix of organic pigments
Hooker’s Green is a bright olive-green often sold in a yellowish shade and a bluish shade. Its transparency can range from dull and dark to bright and light because lightness and chroma vary based on manufacturer. Modern varieties have a rich, dark tone that provides a great range when mixing. Hooker’s Green is particularly good for landscape painting when a larger range of foliage is required. Dioxazine Violet is the best mixing compliment in watercolor form.
The permanence and lightfastness of Hooker’s Green varies by brand. As a composite pigment historically mixed from Prussian Blue and Gamboge, its permanence is only fair. Modern replacements for Hooker's Green tend to be mixed with components that have more permanence, such as Phthalocyanine Green, Burnt Umber, and sometimes Hansa or Cobalt Yellow.
Hooker’s Green can be hazardous, but the toxicity level depends on the specific pigments used by each individual manufacturer or brand.
This pigment was originally an unreliable mix of Prussian or Iron Blue and Gamboge. Later, it became a more reliable mix of Cadmium Yellow and Phthalo Blue or Green. It was a staple green for 19th century landscape and botanical painters. Most modern Hooker’s Green paints are yellow greens with a hue angle around 140, or a mix of Phthalo Green and Burnt Umber.